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87 [eighty-seven]

Past tense of modal verbs 1


‫87 [هشتاد و هفت]‬

‫زمان گذشته ی افعال معین 1‬


We had to water the flowers.
‫ما باید به گلها آب می دادیم.‬
ma bayad be golha ab midadim.
We had to clean the apartment.
‫ما باید آپارتمان را مرتب می کردیم.‬
ma bayad aparteman ra moratab mikardim.
We had to wash the dishes.
‫ما باید ظروف غذا را می شستیم.‬
ma bayad zorufe ghaza ra mishostim.
Did you have to pay the bill?
‫آیا شما مجبور به پرداخت صورت حساب بودید؟‬
aya shoma majbur be pardakhte surat-hesab budid?
Did you have to pay an entrance fee?
‫آیا شما مجبور به پرداخت ورودی بودید؟‬
aya shoma majbur be pardakhte vorudi budid?
Did you have to pay a fine?
‫آیا شما مجبور به پرداخت جریمه بودید؟‬
aya shoma majbur be pardakhte jarime budid?
Who had to say goodbye?
‫چه کسی باید خداحافظی می کرد؟‬
che kasi bayad khoda-hafezi mikard?
Who had to go home early?
‫چه کسی باید زود به خانه می رفت؟‬
che kasi bayad zud be khane miraft?
Who had to take the train?
‫چه کسی باید با قطار می رفت؟‬
che kasi bayad ba ghatar miraft?
We did not want to stay long.
‫ما نمی خواستیم مدت زیادی بمانیم.‬
ma nemi-khastim mod-date ziadi bemanim.
We did not want to drink anything.
‫ما نمی خواستیم چیزی بنوشیم.‬
ma nemi-khastim chizi benushim.
We did not want to disturb you.
‫ما نمی خواستیم مزاحم بشویم.‬
ma nemi-khastim mozahem beshavim.
I just wanted to make a call.
‫من می خواستم الان تلفن کنم.‬
man alan mikhastam telefon konam.
I just wanted to call a taxi.
‫من می خواستم تاکسی سفارش بدهم.‬
man mikhastam taxi sefaresh bedaham.
Actually I wanted to drive home.
‫چون می خواستم به خانه بروم.‬
chun mikhastam be khane beravam.
I thought you wanted to call your wife.
‫من فکر کردم تو می خواستی به همسرت تلفن کنی.‬
man fekr kardam to mikhasti be hamsarat telefon koni.
I thought you wanted to call information.
‫من فکر کردم تو می خواستی به اطلاعات تلفن کنی.‬
man fekr kardam to mikhasti be hamsarat telefon koni.
I thought you wanted to order a pizza.
‫من فکر کردم تو می خواستی یک پیتزا سفارش دهی.‬
man fekr kardam to mikhasti yek pitza sefaresh dahi.

Big letters, big feelings

Advertising uses a lot of pictures. Pictures awaken our particular interests. We look at them longer and more intently than letters. As a result, we remember advertisements with pictures better. Pictures also produce strong emotional reactions. The brain recognizes pictures very quickly. It knows immediately what can be seen in the picture. Letters function differently than pictures. They are abstract characters. Therefore, our brain reacts slower to letters. First, it must understand the meaning of the word. One might say the characters must be translated by the language part of the brain. But emotions can be produced using letters too. The text just needs to be very large. Studies show that big letters have a big effect as well. Large letters aren't just more noticeable than small letters. They also produce a stronger emotional reaction. This is true for positive as well as negative feelings. The size of things has always been important to mankind. Man must react quickly to danger. And when something is large, it's usually already quite close! So it's understandable that large pictures produce strong reactions then. Less clear is how we react to large letters. Letters aren't actually a signal for the brain. Despite this, it shows greater activity when it sees large letters. This result is very interesting to scientists. It shows how important letters have become for us. Our brain has somehow learned how to react to writing…

Guess the language!

______ is counted among the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken natively by 130 million people. The majority of those people live in Pakistan. However, it is also spoken in the Indian state of ******. ______ is hardly ever used as a written language in Pakistan. It is different in India because there the language holds an official status. ______ is written in its own script. It also has a very long literary tradition.

Texts have been found that are almost 1000 years old. ______ is also very interesting from a phonological point of view. This is because it is a tonal language. In tonal languages, the pitch of the accented syllable changes their meaning. In ______, the accented syllable can take on three different pitches. That is very unusual for Indo-European languages. That makes ______ that much more appealing!


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book2 English UK - Persian for beginners