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76 [seventy-six]

giving reasons 2


‫76 [ستة وسبعون]‬

‫إبداء الأسباب 2‬


Why didn’t you come?
‫لماذا لم تأت؟‬
limaathaa lam ta'ti?
I was ill.
‫كنت مريضًا.‬
konto mariidhan
I didn’t come because I was ill.
‫أنا لم آت لأني كنت مريضًا.‬
ana lam aati li'annii konto mariidhan
Why didn’t she come?
‫لماذا هي لم تأتِ؟‬
limaathaa hiya lam ta'ti?
She was tired.
‫كانت تعبانة.‬
kaanat taabaana
She didn’t come because she was tired.
‫هي لم تأتِ، لأنها كانت تعبانة.‬
hiya lam ta'ti, li'annahaa kaanat taabaana
Why didn’t he come?
‫لماذا لم يأتِ؟‬
lmaathaa lam ya'ti?
He wasn’t interested.
‫لم يكن عنده رغبة.‬
lam yakon endaho raghba
He didn’t come because he wasn’t interested.
‫لم يأتِ، لأنه لم يكن عنده رغبة.‬
lam ya'ti, li'annho lam yakon endaho raghba
Why didn’t you come?
‫لماذا لم تأتوا؟‬
lmaathaa lam ta'too?
Our car is damaged.
‫سيارتنا متعطلة.‬
sayyaaratonaa motaeatila
We didn’t come because our car is damaged.
‫لم نأتِ، لأن سيارتنا متعطلة.‬
lam na'ti, l'ann sayaaratanaa motaeatila
Why didn’t the people come?
‫لماذا لم يأتِ الناس؟‬
limaathaa lam ya'ti ennaas?
They missed the train.
‫قد فاتهم موعد القطار.‬
kad faatahom elkitaar
They didn’t come because they missed the train.
‫لم يأتوا، لأن موعد القطار قد فاتهم.‬
lam ya'too, l'anna mawead elkitaar kad faatahom
Why didn’t you come?
‫لماذا أنت لم تأتِ؟‬
limaathaa anta lam ta'ti?
I was not allowed to.
‫لم يُسمح لي.‬
lam yosmah lii
I didn’t come because I was not allowed to.
‫لم آتِ، لأني لم يُسمح لي.‬
lam aati, li'anni lam yosmah lii

The indigenous languages of America

Many different languages are spoken in America. English is the main language in North America. Spanish and Portuguese dominate in South America. All of these languages came to America from Europe. Before colonization, other languages were spoken there. These languages are known as the indigenous languages of America. Until today, they haven't been explored substantially. The variety of these languages is enormous. It is estimated that there are about 60 language families in North America. In South America there could even be as many as 150. Additionally, there are many isolated languages. All of these languages are very different. They exhibit only a few common structures. Therefore, it is difficult to classify the languages. The reason for their differences lies in the history of America. America was colonized in several stages. The first people came to America over more than 10,000 years ago. Each population brought its language to the continent. The indigenous languages are most similar to Asian languages. The situation regarding America's ancient languages isn't the same everywhere. Many Native American languages are still in use in South America. Languages like Guarani or Quechua have millions of active speakers. By contrast, many languages in North America are almost extinct. The culture of the Native Americans of North America was long oppressed. In the process, their languages were lost. But interest in them has increased in the last few decades. There are many programs that aim to nurture and protect the languages. So they could have a future after all…

Guess the language!

The ______ language is surely one of the most fascinating. Many people find the writing system especially interesting. It is comprised of Chinese symbols and two syllabaries. Another characteristic of ______ is that it has many dialects. These differ from one another significantly in some cases. Thus it is possible that two speakers from different regions do not understand each other. ______ has a melodic accent. If a word needs to be emphasized it is not spoken louder.

The pitches of the sounds are varied. Approximately 130 million people speak ______. Naturally, the majority of those live in *****. There are also large groups of ______ speakers in Brazil and North America. They are the descendants of ______ emigrants. There are relatively few true second language speakers. That is exactly what should motivate us to learn this exciting language!


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book2 English UK - Arabic for beginners