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68 [sixty-eight]

big – small


‫68 [ثمانية وستون]‬

‫كبير ـ صغير‬


big and small
‫كبير وصغير‬
kabiir wa saghiir
The elephant is big.
‫الفيل كبير.‬
elfiil kabiir
The mouse is small.
‫الفأر صغير.‬
elfa'r saghiir
dark and bright
‫مظلم ومضيء‬
modhlem wa modhii'
The night is dark.
‫الليل مظلم.‬
ellayl modhlem
The day is bright.
‫النهار مشرق.‬
ennahaar moshrik
old and young
‫كبير السن وشاب‬
kabiir essen wa shaab
Our grandfather is very old.
‫جدنا كبير السن جداُ.‬
jaddonaa kabiiro essenni jedan
70 years ago he was still young.
‫قبل سبعين سنة كان لا يزال شاباً.‬
kabla sabiina sana kana laa yazaal shaaban
beautiful and ugly
‫جميل وقبيح‬
jamiil wa kabiih
The butterfly is beautiful.
‫الفراشة جميلة.‬
elfaraasha jamiila
The spider is ugly.
‫العنكبوت قبيحة.‬
elankaboot kabiiha
fat and thin
‫سمين ونحيف‬
samiin wa nahiif
A woman who weighs a hundred kilos is fat.
‫امرأة وزنها 100 كيلو هي سمينة.‬
emra4ton waznouhaa 100 kiloo hiya samiina
A man who weighs fifty kilos is thin.
‫رجل وزنه 50 كيلو هو نحيف.‬
rajolon waznoho 50 kiloo howa nahiif
expensive and cheap
‫غالي الثمن ورخيص‬
hgaalii eththaman w raghiis
The car is expensive.
‫السيارة غالية الثمن.‬
essayaara ghaaliya eththaman
The newspaper is cheap.
‫الجريدة رخيصة.‬
eljariida raghiisat eththaman


More and more people are growing up bilingual. They can speak more than one language. Many of these people often switch languages. They decide which language to use depending on the situation. For example, they speak a different language at work than at home. By doing so, they adapt themselves to their environment. But there is also the possibility of switching languages spontaneously. This phenomenon is called code-switching. In code-switching, the language gets switched in the middle of speaking. There could be many reasons why speakers switch languages. Often, they don't find the appropriate word in one language. They can express themselves better in the other language. It can also be that the speaker feels more confident in one of the languages. They use this language for private or personal things. Sometimes a certain word doesn't exist in a language. In this case the speaker must switch languages. Or they switch languages so that they aren't understood. In that case code-switching works like a secret language. Earlier, mixing languages was criticized. It was thought that the speaker couldn't speak either language correctly. Today it is viewed differently. Code-switching is recognized as a special linguistic competence. It can be interesting to observe speakers using code-switching. Often, they don't just switch the language they're speaking. Other communicative elements change as well. Many speak faster, louder or more accentuated in the other language. Or they suddenly use more gestures and facial expressions. In this way, code-switching is always a little bit of culture-switching too…

Guess the language!

______ is the native language of approximately 5 million people. It is counted among the ****o-Ugrian languages. It is closely related to Estonian, and very distantly related to Hungarian. As a Uralic language, it strongly differentiates itself from the Indo-Germanic languages. An example of this is its agglutinating language structure. That means that grammatical functions are expressed through suffixed syllables. This is how long words originate that are so typical for ______. Another hallmark of ______ is its many vowels.

______ grammar distinguishes between 15 different cases. It is important to clearly separate long and short sounds in the intonation. Written and spoken ______ are noticeably different from each other. This phenomenon is less pronounced in other European languages. All of this makes ______ not especially easy. But all rules are consistently upheld. And the nice thing about ______ is that it is so completely logical!


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book2 English UK - Arabic for beginners